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Mixture, Solution, Suspension, Colloid Solution and Separation of Substance

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Mixture

  • A substance consisting of one or more pure elements or compounds is called a mixture.
  • The substances present in a mixture are called components or ingredients of the mixture.

Homogeneous mixture 

A mixture that contains two or more ingredients and cannot be seen separately is called a homogeneous mixture. For example, salt in water and sugar in water.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that contains two or more ingredients that can be seen separately is called a heterogeneous mixture. For example, a heterogeneous mixture of water and oil, a heterogeneous mixture of salt and sulfur.

 

Solution

  • The solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
  • A solution is divided into two parts: solvent and solute.
  • The component of the solution that combines the other component in the solution is called a solvent.
  • The component of a solution that dissolves in the solvent is called a solute.
  • For example, a solution of sugar and water is an example of a solid in a liquid solution. In this solution, sugar is solute and water is solvent.

Properties of Solution 

  • The solution is a homogeneous mixture.
  • The diameter of the solution is smaller than 1 nanometer.
  • Due to such small size, the particles of the solution do not spread the ray of light.

The concentration of a Solution

  • The volume of a solvent is the mass or volume of a solute dissolved in a volume is the concentration of a solution.
  • In other words, the quantity of the solution that is present in any given volume or volume of the solution is called the concentration of the solution.

  • The number of solute concentrations equal merger discount volume of the merger amount of solute concentrations equal solution by the amount of solvent.

 

Suspension

  • The suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which no particle mix merger substance but remain suspended in the whole medium.
  • These can be seen with suspended eyes.

Properties of Suspension

  • This is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • Their particles can be seen with eyes.
  • These suspended particles spread the beam of light, making their path visible.
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Colloid Solution

The particles of the colloid are spread evenly in the solution. The size of their particles is smaller than that of suspension, due to which the mixture appears homogeneous. But in reality, this solution is a heterogeneous mixture. For example milk.

If a ray of light is passed in a colloidal solution, this solution spreads the beam of light easily. The spreading of this ray of light is called the Tyndall effect. Colloids general examples

Separation of the Components from any Mixture

filtrate

A heterogeneous mixture is separated by this method.

Filtration

This method is used to remove insoluble impurities such as soil in water.

Effluent

Centrifuges 

Sometimes the solids present in the fluid are so small that they cannot be filtered and separated. Such a mixture is separated by centrifugation. Such as separating cream from milk.

Evaporation

A liquid that turns into vapor is called evaporation. Salt from seawater is made by the evaporation method.

Magnetic Separation

This method is used to separate iron materials. 

Sublimation

On heating a solid converts directly into a gas state and on cooling, it transforms into a solid state without changing from vapor to liquid. The mixture of salt and ammonium is separated by Sublimation.

Chromatography

This is a method used to separate solutes that dissolve in the same type of solvent. It is used to separate dyes, to separate substances in the blood, etc.

Distillation

Distillation used to separate mixtures that dissolve without boiling and have greater gaps between the boiling points of their constituents. 

Efficient Distillation

The method of Efficient distillation is used to separate a mixture of two or more soluble liquids with a boiling point difference of less than 25 K. For example the separation of various gases from air and their different components from petroleum products.

 

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