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Acid, Base and Salts 


Some substances whose odor changes in acidic or alkaline medium, are called olfactory indicators.

Indicators used to identify acids and base

  • vanilla
  • onion
  • long oil used



  • Its taste is sour. Acids turn blue litmus paper into the red.
  • Some important products and the acids found in them

Common Properties

  1. The reaction of the acid with the metal

Acid displaces salts and hydrogen gases by reacting with metals.


2. The reaction of Acid with Metal Carbonate and Metal Hydrogen Carbonate

After reacting with all the metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates, they make corresponding salts, carbon dioxide, and water.

Metallic carbonate/Metal hydrogen carbonate + Acid = Salts + Carbon Dioxide + Water


3. The reaction of Metallic oxides with acids

as we know that metallic oxides are generally alkaline in nature. Hence, salt and water are obtained when the acid reacts with the metal oxide.

Metal Oxide + Acid = Salts + Water


4. All Acids make salts after reacting with base. This process is called the neutralization reaction.



  • They are bitter in taste and turn red litmus into the blue. 
  • For example sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, etc.

The reaction of the base with non-metallic oxide

As we know, non-metallic oxides are generally acidic in nature. Therefore, salt and water are obtained by reacting the base with non-metallic oxide.


acids and bases react together to form salts. These reactions are called neutralization reactions. This reaction is an exothermic reaction.

Acid + Base = Salt + Water


Arrhenius Conception

  • Substances that decompose in aqueous give hydrogen ions are called acids and substances which decompose in aqueous solution give hydroxyl ions are called the base.
  • Some acids are completely ionized in an aqueous solution. Such acids are called strong acids. Such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, etc. Some acids are not completely ionized in aqueous solutions, these are called weak acids. Like CH3COOH, H2S, etc.
  • All those bases which are completely ionized in an aquatic solution are called the strong base. Such as voice NH etc.
    Those which are not fully ionized in aqueous solution are called the weak base. Like nh4oh mgs2 etc.


Luis concept of acid-base 

  • All those substances which accept electron pair called acid while all the substances which leave an electron pair called the base.
  • Examples of Lewis acid BF3, alcl3, MG + 2 and Lewis base examples H2O, NH3, OH, Cl


pH scale 

  • the pH scale is used to measure the strength of acids and bases.
  • This scale has values ​​ranging from 0 to 14.
  • Values ​​ranging from zero to 7 are considered acids while values ​​from 7 to 14 are considered base.

Some Compound used in daily life

Sodium Chloride

  • It’s simple name salt. It’s ph7 and hence has a neutral nature.
  • It is used in food in the form of ordinary salt. It is used in food preservation, forming a freezing mixture.

Sodium Hydroxide

  • It is also called caustic soda.

Bleaching Powder 

  • its chemical name is calcium oxychloride.
  • It is used as a bleach in the textile industry, as germicide and oxidizer, in purifying drinking water and as a bleaching agent in the paper industry.

Baking Soda

  • It is also known as edible soda. Its chemical name is sodium hydrogen carbonate. 

Washing Soda

  • its chemical name is sodium carbonate. 
  • It is used as a detergent.
  • It is used in paper, paint, and textile industries.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of caustic soda, baking powder, glass, and soap borax.

Plaster of Paris

  • chemical name: calcium sulfate hemihydrate.
  • This is achieved by heating the gypsum. After adding water to it, it becomes solid and hard in 15 to 20 minutes.
  • It is used in broken bones and as a fired agent in dentistry building

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