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Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloid


Physical Properties of Metals

  1. All metals except mercury are found in the solid-state at room temperature.
  2. Alkaline metals like lithium, sodium, potassium are so soft that it can be cut with a knife. 
  3. Some metals can be beaten to form thin sheets. This quality metal is called shock preference.
  4. The ability to pull tensile metal into the thin wire is called tensile. Gold is the most ductile metal.
  5. The conductivity of Heat: Some metals are good conductors of heat, while some metals are bad conductors of heat. For example, silver and copper are the best conductors of heat. Lead and mercury are bad conductors of heat.
  6. Melting points of metals are high.


Physical properties of Nonmetals

  1. Bromine is a non-metal which is liquid. Apart from this, all non-metals are solid or gas.
  2. Iodine and diamond are shiny despite being nonmetal.
  3. Carbon is a non-metal that exists in various forms. Each of its forms is called Allotropes. The Diamond is an Allotropes of carbon. It is the hardest substance on Earth. 
  4. Generally, non-metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity. But graphite is a conductor of electricity.


Chemical Properties of Metals

  1. The reaction of Metals with Oxygen: Almost all metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides. These metal oxides are alkaline in nature. But some metal oxides, such as aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, exhibit both acidic and alkaline behavior. Hence these are called amphoteric oxides. 

Most metal oxides are insoluble in water but sodium oxide and potassium oxide dissolve in water to provide alkali.

Metals like sodium and potassium react with oxygen so fast that when caught in the open it catches fire, so they are dipped in kerosene.

Silver and gold do not react with oxygen even at very high temperatures. Sodium is the most reactive of all metals.

2. Metals reaction with water: Metals react with water to produce hydrogen gas and metal oxides.

3. Metals react with acids: Metals react with acids to give hydrogen gas.


Chemical properties of Nonmetals

  1. Non-metals reaction with oxygen: Non-metals react with oxygen to form oxides. These oxides are acidic in nature.
  2. Nonmetals reaction with water: Normally, Non-metals do not react with water or water vapor.


Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals that cannot be separated into components by physical action. 

  1. Brass (Copper & Zinc)
  2. Bronze (Copper & Tin)
  3. Solder (Lead & Tin)
  4. Stainless Steel (Iron, Chromium & Nickel)

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