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Genetic and Heredity



The branch of genetics in which the heredity and variation of the characteristics of living organisms is studied is called genetics.

The Experiment of Mendel

  • Gregor John Mendel is called the father of genetics. He was a resident of Austria.
  • Gregor John Mendel conducted experiments on green peas for 7 years. Based on these experiments, he introduced the laws of heredity, also known as Mendelism.

Gene: It is the factor that controls a single trait. The part of DNA that contains information for any protein synthesis is called the gene of that protein. It was named Jene by Johnson. 

Alleles: The two reverse forms of the genes that control a single trait are called alleles.

Chromosome: A gene set found in the form of a single DNA chain, but rather as separate independent forms of DNA, these are called chromosomes.

Mendel’s Law of Inheritance Rules

  1. Rule of Effectiveness: When a trait is hybridized in retrograde homozygous plants, a trait that shows its expression in F generation is called effective and a trait that does not show its expression in the F generation is called ineffective.
  2. Separation or the law of purity of gametes: According to this law of when forming a coupler from a heterozygous, both alleles are separated from each other and move to different gametes, so it is called the law of separation or the law of disjunction and each coupler has one. A allele is found for the characteristic, so it is also called the law of purity of gametes.
  3. Rule of independent abstinence: According to this rule, if plants with two or more antipyretic symptoms are hybridized, the inheritance of one symptom has no effect on the inheritance of the other symptom, ie the alleles of each symptom are not only isolated but The alleles of different traits behave independently of each other or are independently obsessed. This is called the law of independent degeneration.


Each cell has two replicas of each chromosome, one of which is derived from the male and the other from the female. Only one chromosome of each pair of chromosomes from each parent cell goes to a germ cell gametes. When there is a fusion of two gametes, the number of chromosomes in the zygote formed is identical again and the number of chromosomes in the offspring remains fixed.

Sex Determination

  • Women have an XX chromosome while men have an XY chromosome. 
  • The male chromosome plays an important role in sex determination.


Some Important Facts

  • The theory of bio-development was formulated by Charles Darwin.

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