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Digestive System

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Nutrition in Plants

  • Nutrition in plants is accomplished by photosynthesis. Therefore, they are called autoimmune creatures.
  • Photosynthesis is the process in which plants convert substances taken from outside into accumulated energy.
  • Carbon dioxide and water are converted into carbohydrates in chlorophyll in the presence of sunlight. This carbohydrate is used to provide energy to the plant. Carbohydrates that are not used immediately are stored in the form of starch.

 

Photosynthesis has three functions

  1. light energy is communicated by chlorophyll.
  2. Light energy is converted into chemical energy and water molecules decompose into hydrogen and oxygen.
  3. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrates.

Note:- Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis. This chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts of plants.

 

Nutrition in Humans

Naturally, food in the human body has to pass through a cycle. During this process, food passes through various organs.

  1. Mouth

Teeth

  • The most solid substance found in the body is Enamel which is found on the teeth.
  • There are four types of teeth.
  • Rodent Ratnak Arga Charnavak Charnavak Dantya
  • Teeth Formula = 2123 
  • All four types of teeth are found in the mouth through this formula. 

In the mouth, food is broken into small pieces by teeth. The human mouth has salivary glands that secrete a juice called saliva. Saliva also contains an enzyme called amylase. This enzyme breaks down the complex molecule of starch into sugars. 

2. Stomach

The food is moved from the mouth to the stomach by the esophagus. The stomach is a large organ that spreads when food comes. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by the oxyntic cells of the stomach. Here the food becomes acidic due to the presence of hydrochloric acid. There is a secretion of gastric juice by the Paroli gland present in it. This gastric juice contains 3 enzymes. 

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  • Pepsin: It converts this protein into papers.
  • Renin: It converts milk into protein.
  • The Mucous Cervix: It emits mucus which protects the stomach wall from hydrochloric acid.

3. Small Intestine 

It is the largest part of this alimentary canal. Different animals have different lengths of it. Vegetarian animals have a longer length to digest cellulose. Small Intestine is the site of the complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Juices from the liver and pancreas are offered in pure color. The food coming from the stomach is acidic in nature. Bile juice released from the liver makes this food alkaline. Pancreatic juice is secreted by the pancreas. This juice contains the following enzymes.

  • Trypsin: It converts this protein into a dye peptide.
  • Amylase: It converts the starch to the disaccharide.
  • Lipase: It converts this fat into mono glycerin.

Digested food is absorbed by the wall of the small intestine. Here intestinal juice is secreted. It contains the following enzymes 

  • Dieptidinase: It converts the dipeptide into amino acids.
  • Maltase: It converts maltose into glucose.
  • Lattice: It converts lactose into glucose.
  • Surcease: It converts sucrose into glucose.

4. Large Intestine

The Unabsorbed food is sent to the large intestine. More water is absorbed here and the rest of the material is removed by the anus.

 

Glucose Production in Human

Glucose produced in the body produces energy in the presence or absence of air. 

The energy emitted by cellular respiration is immediately used in the synthesis of a molecule called ATP, which is used as fuel for other cell functions.

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