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Classification of Plants


Plantae Kingdom

Plantae consists of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms containing cell wall. They are autotrophic and self-nourish themselves through photosynthesis. They are divided into five parts.

  1. Thallophyta(Algae)
  • These cannot be differentiated in the physiological structure such as root, stem, leaf etc. 
  • Plants of this class are commonly called algae. They are mainly found in water. 
  • Their body is similar to that of Thallus, hence they are called Thalophyta. 
  • Examples are Eulothrix, Spirogyra, Cara etc.

2. Bryophyta

  • Plants of this part are also called amphibians of the plant world, because they can survive on land but depend on water for sexual reproduction. 
  • It does not divide into structures such as plants, stems and leaves. 
  • Examples are moss, liverwort etc.

3. Pteridophyta

  • The body of the plants of this part is divided into root, stem and leaf. 
  • In their body, the phylum like xylem and phloem, are found for the collection of water and other substances. 
  • They do not have the ability to produce seeds, hence they are called cryptogams.
  • Examples are Marcelia, Farn, Horselt, etc. 

4. Gymnosperm 

  • Plants in which the ovules are not covered and remain exposed before and after fertilization are also known as Gymnosperm. They are also called naked seed plants. 
  • Gymnosperms are medium or tall trees and shrubs. 
  • These plants are multivariate evergreen and woody. 
  • Musla root is found in them. The roots of some plants cooperate with fungi called fungicides such as pineas. The small specific root of some plants collaborates with nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria called coral roots such as cycus.
  • Examples are Pines and Cycus. 

5. Angiosperm

  • Plants in which the seeds are covered under fruits, that is, their seeds grow inside the ovaries, which later become fruits, are called angiosperms. They are also called floral plants.
  • In these, food is stored in cotyledons or embryos. 
  • Based on the number of cotyledons, the angiosperm is divided into two parts: a cotyledon plant is called a cotyledon and two cotyledon plant is called a dicotyledon. 
  • Examples are mango, mustard, banyan etc.



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