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Cell, Cell Division and Tissue



Any cell consists of the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm.

  1. Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane
  • It is the outermost layer of the cell that separates the component organs of the cell from the environment outside. 
  • The plasma membrane allows certain substances to come in or out. It also prevents the movement of other substances. For this reason, the cell membrane is called a descriptive permeable membrane. 
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide are released from the cell membrane by the diffusion process.
  • The plasma membrane is flexible and is made up of organic molecules such as lipids and proteins. 

Note:- In addition to the plasma membrane, the cell wall is also found in plant cells. This cell wall is made of cellulose.

2. Nucleus

  • There is a layer of the double layer around the nucleus called the nucleus membrane. There are small holes in the nucleus membrane, through these holes the cytoplasm inside the center is able to go out of the nucleus.
  • The nucleus contains chromosomes. Chromosomes have genetic properties that pass from the parent to the next progeny as a DNA molecule. 
  • Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins. The functional block of DNA is called a gene. DNA remains as a chromatin substance until the cell divides. Whenever the cell begins to divide, it is organized into chromosomes. 
  • In some organisms, the nucleus region of the cell is much less pronounced because it does not have a nucleus membrane. Such an unclear core region contains only chromatin material. Such region is called the nucleus.

Note:- Organisms that do not have a nucleus membrane in their cells are called prokaryotic. Organisms that have concentrated Delhi present in their cells are called eukaryotic.

3. Cytoplasm 

  • There is a substance which is found inside the cell membrane apart from the nucleus is called cytoplasm. 
  • The cytoplasm is a fluid inside the plasma membrane. 
  • It has many specific cell components called cell organelles.
  • Both cytoplasm and nucleus together make up the spores.


Cell Organelles

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • The reticulum of cells between the nucleus of the cell and the reticulum in any cell known as Endoplasmic Reticulum. 
  • Its function is to transport substances between different areas of the cell and between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. 
  • There are two types of rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are found on the wall of rough endoplasmic reticulum and perform the function of protein synthesis. Ribosomes are not found on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and act as a synthesis of fat and lipid molecules.

2. Goloviclie

  • Goloviclie has flat membranes with membranes that parallel to each other. 

3. Lysosomes

  • It is called waste disposal mechanisms of cells. 
  • These cells clean the cell by digesting the broken parts of organs. 
  • Very powerful digestive enzymes are found in lysosomes. 
  • When cells become damaged or dead, lysosomes burst and enzymes digest their own cells, hence lysosomes are also called the suicide bags of the cell.

4. Mitochondria

  • Th is is the cell’s powerhouse/powerhouse. 
  • Mitochondria provide energy in the form of ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate) to perform various chemical actions necessary for life. 
  • Dual membranes are found in mitochondria. 
  • Mitochondria are found only in eukaryotic cells and are not found in prokaryotic cells.

5. Laval Plastid

  • It is found only in plant cells. 
  • Due to the different types of pigment in the lavage, they appear in different colors. 
  • There are two types of plastics: chromoplast(colored plastics) and leucoplast(colorless and white plastic). 
  • The lubricant that contains chlorophyll pigment is called the chloroplast. Photosynthesis takes place only through green matter.
  • Its external structure is similar to that of mitochondria. It also has its own DNA and ribosomes.

6. Asteroid


Cell Division 

  • The formation of 2 or many cells from a progenitor cell is called cell division.
  • There are two types of cell division.

Mitosis Division

It occurs in all other types of somatic cells except reproducing cells. In this process of cell division, a parent cell gets divided into two progeny cells and the number of chromosomes in the progeny cells is equal to the parent cell, hence it is also called even division. During mitosis, the cell divides during the following stages.

  1. Interstitial 
  2. Nucleus Division 
  3. Cytoplasm Division

Meiosis Division

Meiosis occurs in diploid germ cells during sexual reproduction, resulting in haploid gametes. The number of chromosomes in the progeny cells formed as a result of this division is half that of the parent cell. In meiosis, four haploid progenitor cells are formed from a diploid parent cell.

Meiosis division stages

  1. Meiosis Division First
  2. Meiosis Division Second

Structure of Multicellular Organisms 

In multicellular organisms, cells make different types of tissue together. Different tissues make organs and body are formed by organs together.


A group of cells that have the same origin, growth, and function is called tissues.

Animal Tissue

There are four types of tissues found based on the functional structure in multicellular animals.

  1. Epithelial Tissue 
  2. Connective Tissue 
  3. Muscle Tissue 
  4. Nerve Tissue


Plant Tissue

There are two types of plant tissue.

  • Their cells are spherical elliptical. Intercellular space is not found between cells. 
  • The spores of this tissue are thick and centripetal and the cell wall is thin. 
  • There are three types of tissues.
  1. Apical meristem
  2. Antrvesi meristem
  3. lateral victory 

2. Fixed Tissue

  • Fixed tissues are a group of cells that their ability to split is virtually destroyed. 
  • Their cells grow and take a certain shape and shape and the plant performs the rest of the work of the body. 

Complex Tissue

  • Xylem: Its work is to transmit water and mineral salts.
  • Phloem: The main function of the Phloem is the transmission of food to the stem and roots.



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