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Respiratory System

  • Terrestrial animals carry oxygen to the atmosphere while animals living in water use oxygen to dissolve in water.
  • Because the amount of oxygen dissolved in water is much less than the amount of oxygen in the air, the breathing rate of quicker organisms is faster than that of terrestrial organisms.
  • The fish absorb oxygen with the help of clome.

Human Respiratory System

In humans, air enters the body through the nose gate. From here, air flows into the pleura by the throat. A cartilage ring is present in the throat that ensures that the airway is not obstructed. The passage inside the pleura divides into smaller and smaller tubules that eventually end up in a balloon-like structure called a kipuka. The follicle provides a surface from which gases can be exchanged.



Blood brings carbon dioxide from the rest of the body to be released. Taking blood from the tubes, it carries oxygen to all the cells of the body. 

  • Tidal volume The volume of inhaled or inhaled air per breath during normal breathing is called tidal volume.
  • Residual Volume The volume of air that remains in the lungs even after forced expiration is called residual volume.
  • Bio-capacity is the amount of air that a person can transfer after forced removal.
  • The total lung capacity is the sum of bio-capacity and residual capacity.

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